***************************************************************************** * CHAPTER 11 - STATISTICS FOR BUSINESS & ECONOMICS, 4th Ed., by Paul Newbold* ***************************************************************************** * * Example 11.1, page 408 * * The SAMPLE command is used to specify the sample range of the data to be * read. The READ command is used to read in a gas company's findings of a * random sample of 400 of its accounts which is defined as O and the * corresponding probability of the accounts being fully paid or in arrears * is defined as P. The LIST option on the READ command lists all data read. * SAMPLE 1 4 READ O P / LIST 287 0.80 49 0.10 30 0.06 34 0.04 * * The GEN1 command is used to calculate the expected number of the present * accounts to fall in each of the four categories P is defined as EXPECT. * GENR EXPECT=400*P * * The STAT command with the SUM= option is used to save the sum of the * variable in a specified vector. * STAT O / SUM=SO STAT P / SUM=SP STAT EXPECT / SUM=SEXPECT * * The PRINT command is used to replicate the Table on page 409. * PRINT O P EXPECT PRINT SO SP SEXPECT * * The Null Hypothesis is that the proportion in the present winter conform to * the historical records. The GENR and STAT commands are used to generate * the Chi-squared test value. * GENR CHI=((O-EXPECT)**2)/EXPECT STAT CHI / SUM=CHI2 PRINT CHI2 * DELETE / ALL * *----------------------------------------------------------------------------- * Example 11.2, page 418 * * The SAMPLE command is used to specify the sample range of the data to be * read. The READ command is used to read in the data. The low range of the * Percentage Debt is defined as LOWPD, the high range of the Percentage Debt * is defined as UPPD, the number of Older Firms is defined as OLDF, the * expected number of Older Firms is defined as EXPECTOF, the number of Newer * Firms is defined as NEWF, and the expected number of Newer Firms is defined * as EXPECTNF. The LIST option on the READ command lists all data read. * SAMPLE 1 4 READ LOWPD UPPD OLDF EXPECTOF NEWF EXPECTNF / LIST 0 25 19 16.5 29 31.5 26 50 13 7.9 10 15.1 51 75 7 6.2 11 11.8 76 100 4 12.4 32 23.6 * * The GENR and STAT command is used to calculate the sum of Older Firms, * Newer Firms and the total of Older and Newer Firms in each of the four * Percentage Debt categories. * GENR TOTALS=OLDF+NEWF STAT OLDF / SUM=SOLDF STAT NEWF / SUM=SNEWF STAT TOTALS / SUM=STOTALS * * The PRINT command is used to replicate the second table on page 418. * PRINT LOWPD UPPD OLDF EXPECTOF PRINT NEWF EXPECTNF TOTALS PRINT SOLDF SNEWF STOTALS * * The Null Hypothesis is that no association between firm age and debt as a * percentage of capital structure is tested using the GENR and STAT commands. * GENR CHI=(((OLDF-EXPECTOF)**2)/EXPECTOF)+(((NEWF-EXPECTNF)**2)/EXPECTNF) STAT CHI / SUM=CHI2 PRINT CHI2 * DELETE / ALL * *----------------------------------------------------------------------------- STOP